Open Access Journal

ISSN: 2183-2439

Editorial | Open Access

(Dis)Information Literacy: A Democratic Right and Duty of All Citizens

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Abstract:  When the call for papers for this issue was made a few months ago, disinformation literacy to defend our democracies was already seen as having great importance. Today, when hybrid warfare (of which information disorder is a key part) is being waged, with deaths and destruction inflicted on European soil, it is clearly not only important but also urgent. Our democracies and freedoms are at stake. In a scenario where, on the one hand, labels (“audience,” “prosumers,” “media,” “fake news,” “post-truth”) and on the other hand, the realities that these labels hide are changing and are modified so quickly, different institutions that structure the democratic societies must converge in the construction of effective information literacy strategies. Schools and the entire formal education system must be the first, of course. Universities must lead this fight, combining their teaching and research mission with their work relating to dissemination and social awareness, especially from communication studies and colleges of journalism. In parallel to educational and research institutions, media also play a crucial role in promoting (dis)information literacy. As media educators, they should not only serve the mercantilist objective of retaining their clientele but also uphold their democratic responsibility to help instill a sense of civic awareness in citizens.

Keywords:  democracy; disinformation; hybrid war; information disorder; information literacy; post-truth; resilience



© José Antonio Muñiz-Velázquez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.