Open Access Journal

ISSN: 2183-2439

Article | Open Access

Redefining Hallin and Mancini’s Media System: Cross-Border Investigative Networks in Europe

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Abstract:  This article analyses how cross-border investigative journalism (CBIJ) has expanded the parameters of the media system described by Hallin and Mancini (2004), with the addition of new indicators to adapt it to the paradigm of global convergent media. To this end, it examines how this type of journalism has been conceptualised in Europe as a result of the forums articulated at Dataharvest (the European Investigative Journalism Conference). A quantitative method is applied with text mining techniques to analyse the frequency, associations, and groupings of terms mentioned in the sessions offered from 2014 to 2023. To classify the language units, the variables of CBIJ’s economic model, its thematic relationship with national contexts, and its professional practices are used. The results reveal a clear predominance of the word “data,” reflecting Dataharvest’s particular interest in the dynamics of data processing, which has become an essential part of the work in these networks. An analysis of organisational culture reveals that high-profile associations play a more important role in collaborative projects than less institutionalised networks. The business model encourages non-profit organisations that depend on foundations to support their work. In thematic terms, CBIJ projects address topics emerging in the supranational space, offered with a common frame of reference for multiple countries. These networks necessitate a redefinition of the model defined in 2004, as they have developed qualities of their own in relation to the business model they adopt, the transnational orientation of reporters, the issues addressed, and, to a lesser extent, professional practices.

Keywords:  cross-border investigative journalism; data; Europe; funded journalism; intertwined newsrooms; media systems; non-profit organisations; transnational network


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© Lorena R. Romero-Domínguez. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.