Examining Socio-Economic Inequality Among Commuters: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area

Open Access Journal | ISSN: 2183-7635

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Examining Socio-Economic Inequality Among Commuters: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area


  • Adiwan Aritenang Urban and Regional Planning, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia


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Abstract:  The rapid development of urban areas in surrounding regions has led to an increasing number of commuters within and between core-peripheral regions. However, variation in jobs and economic levels has exacerbated the socio-economic inequalities between metropolitan residents. Using the commuter data of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, this study examines the socio-economic disparities of commuting behaviour, spatial patterns, and health between commuters with incomes lower and higher than the regional minimum wage. The article conducts quantitative descriptive statistics and a non-parametric test using the BPS—Statistics Indonesia 2019 commuter data that included 13,000 sample respondents from the Jakarta Province and its neighbouring districts. Our result reveals a significant impact of income level on the choice of private transportation mode, whilst having no effect on the choice of public transportation modes. Higher-income peripheral residents tend to commute to the core metropolitan area (Jakarta Province), while lower-income commuters typically travel between peripheral areas. The article also indicates the negative physical health impact of prolonged and early-hours commuting, especially for lower-income groups. The article proposes better public transportation that is convenient, safe, and reliable, to ensure a sustainable and resilient metropolitan area.

Keywords:  commuters; health; inequality; Jakarta; metropolitan area; transportation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17645/up.v7i3.5271


© Adiwan Aritenang. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.