Open Access Journal

ISSN: 2183-2463

Article | Open Access

Integrating Manual and Automatic Annotation for the Creation of Discourse Network Data Sets

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Abstract:  This article investigates the integration of machine learning in the political claim annotation workflow with the goal to partially automate the annotation and analysis of large text corpora. It introduces the MARDY annotation environment and presents results from an experiment in which the annotation quality of annotators with and without machine learning based annotation support is compared. The design and setting aim to measure and evaluate: a) annotation speed; b) annotation quality; and c) applicability to the use case of discourse network generation. While the results indicate only slight increases in terms of annotation speed, the authors find a moderate boost in annotation quality. Additionally, with the help of manual annotation of the actors and filtering out of the false positives, the machine learning based annotation suggestions allow the authors to fully recover the core network of the discourse as extracted from the articles annotated during the experiment. This is due to the redundancy which is naturally present in the annotated texts. Thus, assuming a research focus not on the complete network but the network core, an AI-based annotation can provide reliable information about discourse networks with much less human intervention than compared to the traditional manual approach.

Keywords:  annotation; automation; discourse networks; machine learning; migration discourse


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© Sebastian Haunss, Jonas Kuhn, Sebastian Padó, Andre Blessing, Nico Blokker, Erenay Dayanik, Gabriella Lapesa. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.