Open Access Journal

ISSN: 2183-2463

Article | Open Access

Cross-Scale Linkages of Centralized Electricity Generation: Geothermal Development and Investor–Community Relations in Kenya

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Abstract:  Based on a study of Kenya’s geothermal-energy development in Baringo-Silali, we explore how and with whom government actors and local communities in rural and peripheral areas interact when planning and implementing large-scale power plants. Starting from a comparison of decentralized and centralized energy systems, we demonstrate that the development of this large-scale infrastructure project and the associated investor-community relations are governed by various cross-scale linkages. To this end, we adapt the concept of cross-scale linkages from the literature on natural-resource governance to explore actors, rules, and practices at local, regional, national, and international levels.

Keywords:  Baringo; centralized electricity generation; corporate social responsibility; cross-scale linkages; geothermal development; governance; infrastructure; investor–community relations; Kenya



© Britta Klagge, Clemens Greiner, David Greven, Chigozie Nweke-Eze. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.