The Design and Impacts of Individual Sanctions: Evidence From Elites in Côte d’Ivoire and Zimbabwe

Open Access Journal | ISSN: 2183-2463

Article | Open Access

The Design and Impacts of Individual Sanctions: Evidence From Elites in Côte d’Ivoire and Zimbabwe


  • Clara Portela Faculty of Law, University of Valencia, Spain
  • Thijs Van Laer Independent researcher, Belgium


Full Text   PDF (free download)
Views: 430 | Downloads: 161


Abstract:  Since the 1990s, sanctions senders like the European Union, the United States, and the United Nations have been imposing visa bans and asset freezes on individuals as a key element of their sanctions packages. Notwithstanding the growing centrality that individual sanctions have acquired in international sanctions practice, little is known about the impact of sanctions listings on designees. Some researchers have scrutinised targeting choices, while others have explored the effects of sanctions on designees. However, no study has yet examined the fit between targeting choices and impacts on designees. First, we interrogate the theory of targeted sanctions to identify the expectations that it generates. Second, we examine the effects on designees and contrast them with the targeting logic of the sender, in a bid to ascertain their fit. Our analysis of the cases of Côte d’Ivoire (2010–2011) and Zimbabwe (2002–2017) benefits from original interview material.

Keywords:  Côte d’Ivoire; European Union; impact of sanctions; targeted sanctions; United Nations; Zimbabwe

Published:   26 January 2022


Supplementary Files:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v10i1.4745


© Clara Portela, Thijs Van Laer. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.