Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

Open Access Journal | ISSN: 2183-2803

Article | Open Access

Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area


  • Yuka Nakamura School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Canada
  • Peter Donnelly School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Canada, and Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Canada


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Abstract:  The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

Keywords:  diversity; immigrants; interculturalism; physical culture; sport; Toronto

Published:   29 June 2017


DOI: https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v5i2.891


© Yuka Nakamura, Peter Donnelly. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.