Open Access Journal

ISSN: 2183-2803

Article | Open Access

Comparative Inclusion: What Spanish Higher Education Teachers Assert

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Abstract:  From a critical comparative perspective (far from more naive and resolute trends) this study delves into the problematisation that comes with recognising comparative education as ‘the science of the difference’ (Nóvoa, 2018). Despite the cementation of discursive, regulatory, and normative governance, of a new higher education regime (Zapp & Ramirez, 2019) revealing the growing isomorphism in the global political and educational discourse of academics, some idiosyncratic characteristics can be detected as a result of the policy implemented in each context. The aim of this article is to compare the beliefs and attitudes of professors from seven Spanish universities regarding diversity, as well as the level of inclusion in higher education, by means of an exploratory, descriptive, and comparative survey. A total of 977 educators participated in a purposive sampling. Descriptive techniques, contrasting differences and comparing proportions allowed us to detect that, although there are no major differences between the teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, some of the minor ones are still worth highlighting. Some of these are the commitment to incorporate diversity in methodologies and teaching resources, in their attempt to meet the needs of diverse people, or the way they perceived personal or institutional commitment to diversity. In conclusion, it is necessary to take a stance on diversity and inclusion that supports the need to stop and reflect on the richness they can provide, from a comparative position and constantly distancing ourselves (Kim, 2020) from today’s university system.

Keywords:  comparative education; diversity; higher education; inclusion; Spain; teachers; teachers’ attitudes and values



© Amparo Pérez‐Carbonell, Genoveva Ramos‐Santana, María‐Jesús Martínez‐Usarralde. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.